The Kingdom of Banten is an Islamic kingdom located in the western coastal region of Java. Banten was originally part of the Sundanese kingdom. Before finally in 1525, Sultan Trenggono sent Nurullah or Syarif Hidayatullah, to conquer this Banten region. Not only to expand the Demak area but Syarif Hidayatullah also has a mission to spread the religion of Islam.
After Islam developed in the Banten region, the Banten region which was originally only a duchy of the Demak section. As time went on it changed to Demak state. Until finally it became an independent and independent sultanate after the kingdom of Demak collapsed due to the defeat of the kingdom of Pajang.
But like the previous Islamic kingdoms which suffered a setback after their golden age. This is also experienced by the kingdom of Banten, the most influential factor in the decline of the Banten Sultanate was because it began the entry of European nations to colonize and plant influence in the archipelago. In addition to the factors of colonization of the European nation, the factor of civil war also contributed to the decline of the Banten Sultanate.
The Beginning of the Establishment of the Sultanate of Banten
Before the 1400s the Banten region could be said to be a quiet area of trade. This can be understood because the Sunda Strait at that time was outside the shipping and trade lines. It is the Sea of Java that acts more as a connecting and trading lane. Towards the arrival of Islam the role of Banten began to be rather meaningful, Banten, which at that time was still in the power of the teaching, served as the port of pepper. Its position ranks second after Sunda Kelapa.
The Portuguese were very interested in the two pepper ports in the Sunda. On the other hand, the Pajajaran kingdom saw that the Portuguese would be able to help them in facing Muslims who in Central Java had succeeded in taking power from the hands of the kings of the Majapahit emperor. Therefore in 1522 Raja Pajajaran who took the title of Samiam (Sang Hyang or Sang Dewa) was willing to enter into an agreement of friendship with the Portuguese represented by Commander in Chief Henrique Leme.
But before the Portuguese had taken advantage of the agreement that was in their favor, namely establishing trade posts, the two Pajajaran ports had been occupied by Nurullah Muslims or Syarif Hidayatullah who later said Sunan Gunung Jati had succeeded in occupying Banten several years after 1522 and in 1527 succeeded in seizing the coconut Sunda Bandar.
Nurullah himself came to Banten in 1525 or 1526 at the behest of the Sultan of Demak at that time, Sultan Trenggono. His arrival, in the western part of Java, brought the mission to spread Islam, and expand Demak's territory. According to the Javanese-Banten story, after arriving in Banten, he immediately succeeded in getting rid of the Sundanese regent there to take over the government of the port city. In that case, he received military assistance from Demak.
The next step to Islamizing West Java was to occupy the old port city, Sunda Kelapa, around 1527. The struggle for the city which was very important for the Padjajaran kingdom trade was quite fierce because it was not too far from the center of the kingdom in Pakuan (Bogor). As a sign that this city is important for the future of Islam, the city was named Jayakarta. The Portuguese who did not know the city had been occupied by Muslims, came in 1527 to establish a trading post as the realization of the agreement with Sang Hyang in 1522 got armed resistance.
As a sign of appreciation for the results achieved by Banten's new ruler, Sunan Gunung Jati, in 1528-1529 Sultan Trenggana presented a large cannon made by Demak which was affixed with it later that year. This cannon is called the Banya, which is later called Ki Jimat.
Sunan Gunung Jati after controlling Banten and Jayakarta apparently did not try to attack the capital city of Pajajaran, Pakuan. In fact, he lived in Banten only until 1552. This was because his son Prince Pasareyan who was made his representative in Cirebon died, since then Sunan Gunung Jati moved to Cirebon for ever and handed Banten to his second son Hasanuddin.
Hasanuddin was appointed and regarded as the first King of Banten. In the tradition of Banten, Hasanuddin was considered the founder of the dynasty of the Banten sultans, not Sunan Gunung Jati. Two reasons may be the cause. First, Sunan Gunung Jati was not long resident in Banten and Secondly, during the reign of Sunan Gunung Jati in Banten, it was Banten's position that was still bound by Demak and Hasanuddin who had begun to break away from all Demak ties, since around 1568 when Demak was in chaos.
Development of the Sultanate of Banten
# Maulana Hasanuddin
Hasanuddin, Banten's second ruler, continued his father's aspirations to expand the influence of Islam on the land of Banten. Many progressive actions that he did in order to give direction to the newly emerging sultanate. The Great Mosque of Banten and educational facilities in the form of Islamic boarding schools in Kasunyatan are real monumental works on the next generation.
In terms of expanding the kingdom and spreading Islam, the Sultan of Hasanuddin expanded his territory to Lampung and the surrounding areas in southern Sumatra. Conquered areas in Maulana Hasanuddin turned out to be the main producing area of pepper. The pepper trade made Banten an important port city, which was visited by merchant ships from China, India, and Europe.
Hasanuddin enlarged and beautified the port city of Banten, which he named Sura-Saji (Surosuwan). This city is more important than the old city of Banten Girang. In 1570 the first Banten sultan died and was replaced by his eldest son, Prince Yusuf. After he died Maulana Hasanuddin was famous for his posthumous name "Prince Saba Kingking".
# Maulana Yusuf
Prince Yusuf's reign period, charisma Banten rose a step higher than before. The process of Islamization also seems to be perfect. The whole area of Banten, both in the city center of Banten Girang, Banten Surosuwan, and the southern region has followed the Islamic religion.
The Kasunyatan Islamic Boarding School which had been pioneered by Sultan Hasanuddin was developed intensively so that it could orbit reliable and responsible religious cadres. At this time the Great Mosque of Banten was not only a place of worship to Allah but also functioned as a place of preaching and discussion of religious problems, for Islamic scientists at that time.
Sultan Maulana Yusuf is a Sultan who is active in expanding the territory. Maulana Yusuf is known as a powerful ruler and has special skills in warfare. With the help of soldiers and religious leaders, Maulana Yusuf attacked Pajajaran, the result was in 1579 Pakuan, the capital of Pajajaran, was captured by the Banten kingdom. This attack was carried out at the time of worship Joseph had ruled for nine years.
After successfully seizing Pakuan, Panembahan Yusuf began building Banten Surosowan as its new capital. In 1980, exactly one year after the conquest of Pakuwan, Maulana Yusuf died and was remembered by the name of Prince Pasareyan. And leave the heir to the throne who is only 9 years old.
# Maulana Muhammad
Substitute Maulana Yusuf is his son Maulana Muhammad. But because Maulana Muhammad was 9 years old. As long as Maulana was under the age of government authority held by a Mangkubumi. Before Maulana grew up, there was a war between Banten and Jepara.
Prince Aria Jepara (Maulana Yusuf's sister who was raised and replaced Ratu Ratuanyat) came in Banten and demanded recognition as Banten's heir to the throne. Prince Jepara who arrived by sea brought armed forces to acquire power, but when he arrived there, the coronation of Maulana Muhammad as the Sultan of Banten had been made, this made Prince Jepara furious so that the war could not be avoided. In this battle, Demang Admiral Jepara was killed, which caused Prince Aria Jepara to abandon his intentions and return to Jepara.
After Maulana Muhammad grew up he was known as a person who rightfully and has a strong passion for disseminating Islam, he made many books and built worship facilities to all corners of the village. Although the progress obtained by Maulana Muhammad was not as high as his father's, but there was a prominent event in his time, namely expansion to Palembang.
Palembang at that time was very advanced under Ki Gede Ing Suro. At the time of the expansion, almost Palembang could be controlled, but when the victory was almost won, the Sultan of Banten was killed by a bullet. Then the attack was stopped, and the army returned home. Maulana Muhammad who died at a relatively young age, because he was only five months old.
# Sultan Abdul Mufakhir Mahmud Abdul Kadir
Sultan Abdul Mufhakir was named when he was a toddler, so for the second time the Sultanate of Banten was handed over his power to Mangkubumi Jayanegara, he was a servant who had high loyalty so that Banten remained in a stable condition.
However, since Mangkubumi Jayanegara died in 1602, the position of Mangkubumi has automatically become the target, many princes have ambitions to occupy this prestigious position. Mangkubumi, the successor to Jayanegara, made a very open policy with his relations with the West. This caused the suspicion and jealousy of several other princes, so that betrayal also happened everywhere. This act of betrayal succeeded in crippling Mangkubumi and killing him.
A new rebellion could be suppressed thanks to cooperation between the Sultan's forces, Prince Ranumganggala's forces, and Prince Jayakarta's assistance so that the rebellion was successfully crushed. In lieu of the position of Mangkubumi, Prince Arya Ranumanggala was appointed.
After serving as Mangkubumi, he immediately conducted curbing, both internal security and reconstructing the Mangkubumi policy before against European traders. The tax was increased especially for the Company, this action was taken so that foreign traders left Banten. Because he already knew of their other intentions besides trading, they also wanted to interfere in domestic affairs.
Arya Ranumanggala's decisive action forced the Company to turn its business orientation to Jayakarta. In Jayakarta they were welcomed by Prince Wijayakrama, he argued that their arrival was able to enliven the port of Sunda Kelapa.
Seeing Prince Jayakarta's close relationship with the Company made the Mangkubumi Arya disturbed. As the holder of the Banten control in charge of Jayakarta, he sent Prince Upatih to destroy foreign fortresses in the Banten region. In this effort the British could be pushed to return to the ship, the troops could also urge the Dutch, but the Dutch remained defensive and did not want to surrender until assistance from Maluku arrived.
After the assistance arrived (led by J.P. Coon) in March 1619 the siege of Banten was meaningless and they returned with disappointment. It was then that Jayakarta was officially controlled by the Company and changed its name to Batavia.
Since the incident, gunfire between Banten and the Company was rather calm, even though small-scale incidents still continued. This was due to internal palace factors, the transfer of power from Mangkubumi Arya to Sultan Abdul Mufakhir who had become an adult, and the existence of Mataram's efforts to take over Banten through the intercession of Cirebon (1650).
It was during this time that Sultan Abdul Mufakhir was the ruler of Banten who was a sultan, he was also known as a person who opposed the VOC, he refused the Dutch desire to monopolize trade. Then there was a conflict due to this, the VOC blockaded the route to the port of Banten, resulting in the war in November 1633, the war ended with a peace agreement between the two parties. Although afterward there were still tensions arising from both parties.
# Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa
Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa ascended the throne to replace his grandfather who died in 1651. Banten experienced rapid development since it was ruled by Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, both in the fields of politics, socio-culture, and especially its economy.
Trade relations with Persia, Surat, Mecca, Karamandel, Bengal, Siam, Tonkin and China threaten the position of the VOC based in Batavia. During this time a large irrigation system was built, which was intended to develop agriculture. Between 30km and 40km of canals are built to run 40,000 hectares of new paddy fields and thousands of hectares of coconut plantations.
As a religious person, he was very antipathetic to the Dutch. His guerrilla attack was carried out by land and sea to break the Dutch defense based in Batavia. The acts of terror and sabotage directed at merchant ships seriously endanger the Netherlands. For more than twenty years Banten in a safe and peaceful atmosphere under the authority of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa.
However, peace was blessed after his eldest son, Sultan Haji returned from the holy land (1676) because he was more in favor of the Dutch than people close to his father. The Sultan of Haji, who was appointed to assist domestic affairs, even compromised with the Company to destroy his own father.
In 1681, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa had a really difficult time because his son took a coup to the palace with the help of VOC troops from Batavia. Finally, because it was difficult to straighten the way of thinking of his son who had been dragged down by company seduction. Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa finally decided to move to Tirtayasa and form a front there with his loyal followers. This situation is a real result of the political success of the Dutch sheep fight.
Although he had to deal with his own son, he remained steadfast in his stance. The front formed by Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa continued to launch attacks on the Dutch whose influence in the Surosowan palace was getting stronger. On February 27, 1682, the Surosuwan palace was invaded and was successfully occupied for a while, but thanks to the help of the Dutch Sultan Haji managed to maintain his power.
Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa's resistance only stopped after he was captured and imprisoned by the Company until his death in 1692. With the signing of the agreement between the Company and the Sultan of Hajj in August 1682, the sultan's absolute power over his territory ended. the status of the Sultan here is only a puppet symbol of the Dutch government. So that in the development of the Banten kingdom, this continued until the collapse of the sultanate.