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The Treaty of Sevres 1920 AD: Division of Ottoman Territories
The Sevres Treaty was one of a series of heavy agreements designed by the Allies to punish the Central Bloc after the First World War. This agreement ordered the division of the Ottoman Empire, which became the main cause of the destruction of this empire. Through the agreement, the Allies sought to undermine the power of the Ottoman Empire and essentially eliminate Turkish sovereignty. As a result, the wave of resistance of the Turkish people led by Mustafa Kemal was getting stronger.

Division of Ottoman Territories

The Sevres Treaty was signed by the Allies on 10 August 1920, after 15 months of planning. This agreement was designed to strangle the Ottoman Turks through severe sanctions in them. Italy, Britain, and France signed it on behalf of the victorious Allies.

One important point of the agreement was the division of the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East. France took over Lebanon, Syria, and territory in southern Anatolia, while Britain took over Palestine and Iraq. The provisions of this distribution have been decided in the secret agreement of Sykes-Picot in 1917.

Meanwhile, Greece was active in resistance to Ottoman control of Smyrna, although technically it remained within the Ottoman Empire. However, the Smyrna people were given a referendum choice about whether they wanted to remain in the Ottoman Empire or join Greece.

While Italy was given the Dodecanese Islands as well as influence in the coastal region of Anatolia.

The agreement made the Strait of Dardanelles into international waters and disarmed the Ottoman Empire's power over it. In addition, several ports near Istanbul are changing as free international zones. This is a territorial loss for a country.

The Sevres Agreement aims to secure Allied interests in the Middle East. In addition, the Allies also obtained oil resources that were recently discovered in the area.

The Sevres Treaty also recognizes certain regions as independent sovereign states, including the Kingdom of Hijaz and Armenia.

The agreement of the Sevres Agreement also benefited the Kurdish struggle. This is because in the agreement it was agreed to establish an independent Kurdistan region, which had previously been under the Ottoman rule. Although in its development the agreement was never eliminated for Kurds.

Military Sanctions and Economy of the Sevres Agreement

Similar to other agreements signed by the Central Bloc, the Sèvres Treaty imposed severe military restrictions on the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Army was restricted to only 50,000 people.

In addition, Ottoman was also banned from having the air force and navy reduced to only thirteen ships. Under the Treaty of Sevres, the Allies were given the power to implement these provisions.

The financial consequences of the Sèvres Treaty matched the Treaty of Versailles in terms of severity; however, the new Weimar Germany is still allowed to run its own economy.

Heavy sanctions were also imposed on the economy, Ottoman rule over the financial and economic sectors was taken over and handed over to the Allies. The takeovers included controls from the Ottoman Bank, controls on imports and exports, control of the national budget, control of financial regulations, loan requests and tax system reform.

The Allies even control debt payments. One condition is that only France, Italy and the United Kingdom can become holders of debt bonds. The Ottoman Empire was also banned from having economic cooperation with Germany, Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria and all the economic assets of these four countries were liquidated in the Ottoman Empire.

The Sèvres Treaty also gave the Allies the right to reform the electoral system of the Ottoman Empire.

Turkish nationalist leader Mustafa Kemal organized a rebellion against the treaty right before the Grand Vizier, Ahmed Pasha, of the Empire ratified it. Pasha was overthrown and Kemal refused to sign the agreement, which he considered did not need to be hard.

Kemal argued that the agreement punished the Turkish people and not the leaders of the Ottoman Empire who had led the country into war. Thanks to the protested protests, the Allies and the new Turkish government were forced to renegotiate the agreement for Turkey.

The Treaty of Sevres 1920 AD: Division of Ottoman Territories

Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916): Maps and History
The Sykes-Picot Agreement is a secret agreement between Britain and France regarding the division of Ottoman territory in the Middle East. The agreement formulated by François Georges-Picot represented France and Mark Sykes represented Britain.

After both conducting surveys and negotiations, finally the agreement was inaugurated in May 1916 or at the height of World War I. The agreement was based on the assumption that the Allies would win the war and as a result, the Ottoman Empire siding with Germany would be divided by the Allies.

Under the Sykes-Picot Agreement, France intends to acquire territory or direct control in Syria, Lebanon and southeast Turkey, including the area around Alexandretta. Britain currently controls Iraq and Jordan and areas in Palestine around the northern port of Haifa. Meanwhile, the holy city of Jerusalem and Bethlehem will be under international control. None of these areas stood as an independent state, because all were ruled as provinces of the Ottoman Empire since the 16th century.

In the next agreement, Russia, another ally in World War I, will receive Armenia and parts of Kurdistan. Russia also hopes that this means the realization of his old dream to control access to the Mediterranean Sea from the Black Sea through the Strait of Dardanelles. While the Italians, including allies, will acquire the Aegean Sea and western Turkey around the big city of Izmir. The territory of Saudi Arabia is now not included in the agreement because in 1916 the region was not considered economically or politically important (oil has not been found).

Map Sykes-Picot Agreement
In its development, part of the agreement involving Russia was canceled when Russia left the war early through a separate agreement with Germany. While due to the success of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's military defense of the Anatolian Peninsula, the region was not partitioned after the war.

Some British Government officials warned at that time, part of the Sykes-Picot Agreement was contrary to a secret agreement made with Arabs in the Husayn-McMahon Sherif correspondence. The correspondence contained that Britain would give Great Syria to Sherif Husayn if he was willing to help him fight the Ottomans. The exit of the Balfour Declaration aimed at establishing a Jewish state in Palestine in 1917 further complicates the problem of the division of the region.

In the end, only the Sykes-Picot Agreement and the Balfour Declaration were formalized in the 1920 San Remo Treaty and in the League of Nations in 1922. As a result, Syria and Lebanon became the mandates of France and Jordan, Iraq and Palestine including Jerusalem under the British mandate. While Syarif Hussein failed to get the promised area of Mc.Mahon.

As a result, in the post-World War I era, Arabs not only failed to gain independence but also divided into separate countries ruled by two different powers. The consequences of this decision continued to cause conflict in this region throughout the 20th century.

Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916 AD): History and Maps

The Struggle and the Ideals of the Kurds (19th-20th Century)
Kurds are the largest ethnic group in the world that does not have a homeland. Genocide with chemical weapons carried out by Iraq against the Kurds, in October 1988 has become one of the darkest histories for the tribe. In 1988, at least Iraq launched attacks with chemical weapons on Kurdish residents. The incident sparked criticism from various countries in the world.

Although criticism came from various parties, it did not have much impact on the Kurds. They remain a tribe without a homeland and become a minority in the area they occupy. In an effort to fight for their ideals, the Kurds played a number of roles in important events that took place in Asia Minor and the Middle East in the 20th century. Starting from the Sevres agreement to the Gulf war involving Iraq and Iran.

Historical Background of the Kurds

The Kurds are an Indo-European tribes who predominantly adhere to Sunni Islam. Kurds are the fourth largest ethnic group in the Middle East, after Arabia, Turkey and Persia. Approximately 15% of the Middle Eastern population.

They live in an area called Kurdistan (land of Kurds). The Kurdistan region is found in several countries, such as southeast Turkey, northern Iran, northern Iraq, southern Soviet, and northern Syria.

The biggest Kurdistan region is in three countries, namely Turkey, Iraq and Iran. In the 20th century, there were an estimated 18 million Kurds as a whole, with 8 million in details in Turkey, 5 million in Iran, 3.4 million in Iraq, and the rest spread in Syria and former Soviet areas. This number has increased at the beginning of the 21st century, the number of Kurds has increased to around 30-32 million.

Kurdistan is not a country, so it cannot be found on modern maps. The term Kurdistan was first used as an expression of geography by the Saljuk Turks in the 12th century and became a general term in the 16th century. Where many Kurdish territories fell into Ottoman and Safavid control.

The Kurds came from the Medes tribe who entered Parsi from the Central Asia region. They controlled the mountains of Persia from 614-550 BC. After the arrival of the Islamic Arab forces to the mountainous region of Parsi in the 7th century, the majority of them eventually converted to Islam. Until now, there are two main groups of Kurdish Muslims, 75% Sunni and 15% are Shiites.

One of the famous figures from the Kurds is Salahuddin al-Ayubbi. The main figure in the Third Crusade was a Muslim leader in dealing with the Crusaders. However, Salahuddin's struggle at that time was in the name of Islam, not as a Kurd.

The Kurds only began to fight for the fate of their nation at the end of the 19th century, precisely in 1880. At that time a rebellion led by Kurdish figures, Shaykh Ubaydullah in the Hakari province under the Ottoman rule.

In 1897, Kurds began publishing newspapers named Kurdistan. The newspaper was funded by one of the famous Kurdish families, Badr Khan. The publication of this newspaper aims to disseminate information about the culture and struggle of the Kurds.

Twenty years later, in 1919, the Kurdish leader, Syaikh Mahmud, proclaimed the Sulaymaniah region as an area independent of British rule. But the British managed to thwart the effort. Despite its failure, the Sulaymaniah event was recorded as the first major uprising in the 20th century.

Syaikh Mahmud's efforts had a major influence on the movement of Kurds in the regions of Iran, Iraq and Turkey. In 1919-1922, under the leadership of Ismail Agha Simitqo, Kurds in Iran and Turkey, struggled to obtain a semi-autonomous region along the Iran-Turkey northwestern border region.

The agreement of the 1920 Sevres treaty, by the Allies and Ottomans, benefited the Kurdish struggle. This is because in the agreement it was agreed to establish an independent Kurdistan region, which had previously been under the Ottoman rule. Although in its development the agreement was not irregular for the Kurds.

In 1923, Syaikh Ahmad Barzani and Mullah Mustafa Barzani began a long campaign to gain autonomy for the Kurdistan region in Iraq. Mullah Mustafa later founded the Kurdish Democratic Party. Besides the Kurdish Democratic Party, another Kurdish party in Iraq was named the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan which was founded by Jalal Talabani.

In Iran, Kurds also formed a political party. Kurdish political parties in Iran were first established in 1942. Three years later, the second Kurdish political party was named the Iranian Kurdish Democratic Party. In the same year, the party succeeded in bringing together all Kurdish movements, including Komola. They then proclaimed the founding of the Republic of Mahabad with its president Qazi Mohammad.

The Mahabad Republic is the only independent Kurdish country in history. However, this country is only one year old, because in 1946 the Iranian Shah forces invaded Mahabad and dispersed the republic. A number of Kurdish leaders, including Qazi Mohammad, were arrested and executed.

In the territory of Turkey, the Kurds were recorded three times carrying out a major rebellion, first in 1925, then in 1930, and finally in 1937. The entire attempt at the revolt ended in failure. As a result, many Kurds were massacred and deported by the Turkish government.

The Kurdish Tribe

As previously explained, the Kurds have been struggling to obtain a homeland since the 19th century. The Treaty of Sevres in 1920 which was one of its contents guaranteeing Kurdish independence, in reality never materialized. The main obstacle to the realization of the agreement was the spread of the Kurdistan region in several countries, which made it difficult to form a Kurdish state. In addition, there is a lack of commitment from countries participating in the agreement to realize independence for Kurds.

Based on that reality, the ideals of the Kurds have changed. If they had previously dreamed of establishing an independent Kurdistan country, now they only craved an autonomous region of Kurdistan. These ideals that they are now fighting for.

In Turkey, although the number of Kurds is the most compared to other Kurdistan regions, they can be said to be immobile. The policy of repression and integration that the Turkish government has consistently implemented from year to year has resulted in the crippling Kurdish warriors.

The Turkish army did not hesitate to attack fighters in Iraqi Kurdistan, as they did in 1983, 1984, 1986 and 1987. Based on the testimony of Kurds in the Journeys in Kurdistan book, Turkish forces were an army which was stunned followed by Arab forces . This is even more ironic, because regimes in Turkey, Iraq and Iran (until 1979) formed cooperation to quell the Kurdish rebellion.

In Iran, Kurds who inhabit the Khuzastan province have been demanding autonomy in their territory since the time of the Iran Shah. When the Iranian Revolution erupted, Kurds joined Khomeini's ranks. After the revolution, the Kurds filed three demands on the mullah regime, namely the autonomy of the Kurdistan province, eliminating discrimination in employment, and distributing oil mining products fairly.

The Khomaeni regime refused to grant autonomy to Kurdistan province. He does not want the oil-rich Khuzastan region of Iran, because the region is one of Iran's main foreign exchange earners.

The mullah government in practice managed to reduce the Peshmarga movement. Even Kurds are siding with Iran in the Gulf War when Iraqi forces invaded Kurdistan in Iran.

The same action with different consequences also occurred when Iranian forces stormed into Iraqi Kurdistan. The Peshmarga are shoulder to shoulder with Iranian forces to fight Iraqi forces. It can be said that the success of Iran in taking Kurdistan in Iraq in early 1988, cannot be separated from the contribution of the Kurds. Not surprisingly after the end of the Gulf War I, Saddam Hussein was so angry at the Kurds. He tried to storm the base of the peshmarga which he labeled "traitors".

Hostilities with Saddam Hussein's Regime

In 1982, for the first time in history, two major Kurdish Iraqi parties, the Kurdish Democratic Party led by Masoud Barzani and the Kurdistan Patriotic Union led by Jalal Talabani, agreed to unite against Saddam's regime. Both the Kurdish Democratic Party and the Kurdistan Patriotic Union get support from Iran, whether political support or weapons.

The participation of Kurds in the Gulf I War was very detrimental to the Iraqi side. The climax, in 1988 Iraqi forces launched a large-scale attack with chemical weapons against the Kurdish population.

The first attack began in March 1988, where the Iraqi Air Force bombarded chemical bombs in the city of Halabjah located in the Iraqi Kurdistan region. The incident killed around 4000 Kurds.

The second attack, took place on August 25 to September 5. Kurds residing in the villages of Butia, Mesi, Amadiyah and a number of other villages were victims of the second attack. The attack killed around 2,500 Kurds and resulted in around 60,000 Kurds fleeing to Turkey and Iran.

This second attack caused a wave of criticism in the international community. In October 1988, the European parliament condemned and appealed to its members to issue sanctions on Saddam's regime. Meanwhile, the United States Senate urged President Ronald Reagan to impose economic sanctions on Baghdad.

The only country that expressly stopped cooperation with Iraq was Japan. They stopped sending materials that could be used to make chemical weapons. Although some countries condemn Iraq's use of chemical weapons against Kurds. However, they did not fully support the Kurdish struggle to realize their ideals. Until now, Kurds are still struggling to realize their ideals.

The Struggle and the Ideals of the Kurds (19th-20th Century)

The Safavid dynasty in Persia ruled between 1501-1722 AD This dynasty was one of the large Islamic kingdoms in Persia. The beginning of this Kingdom originated from a tarekat movement in Ardabil, a city in Azerbaijan. The Safavid name was attributed to the name of one of the Sufi teachers in Ardabil named Shaykh Ishak Saifuddin. According to history, he was descended from Musa al-Khadim, the seventh imam Syi'ah Itsna ‘Asyariyah.

This congregation stood at the same time as the establishment of the Ottoman Empire. This tarekat movement has many followers who are very firm in holding religious teachings.

This movement changed the model of its movement from religious movements to political movements. When it became a great power, the Safavid Dynasty faced several times with the Ottomans. The Safavid dynasty declared Shi'ah a state school, the Safavid Dynasty was known as the foundation of the formation of the Iranian state.

The Safavid dynasty reached its heyday during Abbas I. However, that glory was not maintained by his successors. This is because the powerful sultans are weak. So that it triggers rebellion and prolonged problems.

History of the Establishment of the Safavid Dynasty

The forerunner of the establishment of the Safavid Dynasty originated from the tarekat movement which was named Safavid. This movement appeared in Persia, precisely in Ardabil, a city in Azerbaijan. This region is inhabited by Kurds and Armenians. The Safavid name was attributed to the name of one of the Sufi teachers in Ardabil named Sheikh Ishak Safiuddin or Shafi Ad-Din. According to history, he was descended from Musa al-Khadim, the seventh imam Syi'ah Itsna ‘Asyariyah. Shafi Ad-Din came from the descendants of people who were and chose the Sufi as a way of life. His teacher was named Syaikh Tajuddin Ibrahim Zahidi (1216-1301 AD) known as Zahid Al-Gilani. Due to his achievements and perseverance in Sufism, Shafi Ad-Din was taken by his teacher's son-in-law.

Shafi Ad-Din founded the Safavid Order after he replaced the teacher and at the same time his father-in-law who died in 1301 AD The followers of this tarekat were very firm in holding on to the teachings of religion. In the beginning, the Safaweed Sufism movement was aimed at fighting against the people of disbelief, then fighting the groups they called "Expert Bid'ah". This Shafi Ad-Din-led congregation was increasingly important, especially after changing the form of the tarekat from the recitation of local pure Sufism into a well-known movement which had great influence in Persia, Syria, and Anatolia. In countries outside Ardabil, Shafi Ad-Din placed a representative to lead his students. The deputy was given the title of caliph and would later become a war commander.

Then the tarekat students supported the Safavid order to gather strength by becoming soldiers and very fanatical about their beliefs. In fact, they also oppose people who don't agree with them. The Safavid Order was widely accepted by the community so that this tarekat changed the model of the religious spiritual movement into a political movement. This began to appear when the tarekat movement was led by Junaid 1447-1460 M. Junaid expanded political activities in religious activities. The expansion of this activity gets obstacles. One of them was from the rulers of Qara Qayunlu and Aq-Qayunlu who were the two strongest tribes of Turkey. So that there was a conflict between Junaid and the Turkish authorities.

The involvement of the Safavid Order in increasingly large politics led the Safavid order to confront the powerful forces at that time namely the Ottoman Turks. When Junaid had a conflict with Qara Qayunlu, he suffered defeat and was exiled to a place. In that place, Junaid got protection from the ruler of Diyar Bakr who was also a Turkic nation. Junaid lived in the palace of Uzun Hasan, who at that time controlled parts of Persia. While in exile, Junaid did not remain silent. He married one of Uzun Hasan's sisters. In 1459 AD, Junaid tried to take Ardabil but failed. Then in 1460 M Junaid tried to capture the city of Circassia but the troops he led were intercepted by Sarwan's army. Junaid was finally killed in the battle.

The leadership of the Safavid movement was then given to the son of Junaid, Haidar, but Haidar was still very small at that time. After waiting a few years, Haidar was mature enough to marry one of Uzun Hasan's daughters. From this marriage, Ismail was born who later became the founder of the Safavid dynasty in Persia.

Development and Progress of the Safavid Dynasty

At the time of Ismail I came to power for approximately 23 years (1501-1524 AD) he succeeded in expanding his domain, he could also destroy the remnants of the power of Aqqayunlu in Hamadan 1503 AD, control of the Caspian province in Mazandaran, Gurgan and Yazd in 1504 M, Diyar Bakr 1505-1507, Baghdad and the southwestern Persian region in 1508 AD, Sirwan 1509 AD and Khurasan in 1510 M. Ismail I only needed ten years to control all Persia.

The political ambition to encourage Ismail I was to expand his territory to the Ottoman Turks, but because the Ottoman Turks were a very strong dynasty at that time, Ismail I finally suffered defeat. That defeat undermined Ismail's pride and confidence. As a result, his life has changed. Ismail I was more fanatical and this situation had a negative impact on the Safavid dynasty, namely the emergence of a power struggle between the leaders of the Turkish tribes, Persian officials, and Qizilbash.

After the death of Ismail I, the authority of the Safavid dynasty was continued by Tahmasp I (1524-1576 AD), then after that was followed by Ismail II (1576-1577 AD) and Muhammad Khubanda (1577-1587 AD). However, in the reign of the three sultans the Safavid Dynasty suffered a setback. The setback continued until finally Abbas I ascended the throne. During the time of Abbas I, the Safavid dynasty slowly progressed. The steps were taken by Abbas I in advancing the Safavid dynasty include:

Trying to eliminate Qizilbash's domination of the Safavid dynasty by forming new forces whose members consisted of slaves who came from captives of the Georgians, Armenians, and Circassia who had existed since the reign of Tahmasp I.

Hold a peace treaty with the Ottoman Turks. In addition, Abbas I promised not to insult the first three caliphs in Islam, namely Abu Bakr, Umar bin Khattab and Uthman ibn Affan in Friday sermons. As a guarantee of these conditions, Abbas I handed over his cousin Haidar Mirza as a hostage in Istanbul.

After the Safavid dynasty became strong again, Abbas I began to expand and reclaim his lost territories. Abbas I also attacked the Ottoman Turks. At that time the Ottoman Turks under the leadership of Sultan Muhammad II, Abbas I attacked the Ottoman Turks and succeeded in conquering the territories of Tabriz, Sirwan and Baghdad. After that, Abbas I also succeeded in taking control of the city of Nakhchivan Erivan, Ganja and Tiflis in 1605-1606 AD In 1622 AD, Abbas I succeeded in seizing the Hurmuz archipelago and turning the port of Gumrun into the port of Abbas.

In Abbas I's reign was the height of the Safavid dynasty. Politically, Abbas I was able to overcome various internal turmoil which disrupted the stability of the country and succeeded in recapturing territories which had been taken by other dynasties before the previous sultans. Other advances achieved by the Safavid dynasty include:

# Economics

After Abbas I succeeded in seizing the Hurmuz archipelago and turning the port of Gumrun into the port of Abbas, the trade routes that were usually contested by the Dutch, British and French was completely managed by this dynasty.

# Field of education

In the Safavid dynasty, many well-known scientists emerged including Baha 'al-Din al-'Amili (generalist of science), Sadr al-Dîn al-Syîrâzî (philosopher) and Muhammad Baqir ibn Muhammad Damad (philosophers, historians, theologians, who had made observations on the life of the bee).

# Field of Urban Development and Art

The rulers of this dynasty changed Isfahan, which was the capital of this dynasty to become a very beautiful city. Isfahan is a city that is very important for political and economic purposes. In the city stands magnificent buildings such as mosques, hospitals, schools, giant bridges above Zende Rud, and Chihil Satun palace. The city of Isfahan is increasingly beautiful with the making of tourist parks. When Abbas I died, in Isfahan there were 162 mosques, 48 academies, 1802 inns, and 273 public baths.

In the field of art, it can be seen from the architecture of the buildings, as seen in the Shah mosque and the Syaikh Lutf Allah mosque. Other art elements are also seen in handicrafts, ceramics, rugs, carpets, clothing, pottery and others. The painting also began to emerge at this time precisely when the Sultan of Tahmaps I came to power.

Setback and Destruction of the Syafawiyah Kingdom

The Safavid kingdom suffered a post-government setback led by Abbas I. Six subsequent sultans were unable to maintain the progress made by their predecessors. The sultan is also weak in leading and has a bad character which also affects the running of the government. So that the Safavid kingdom suffered a lot of setbacks and did not experience development.

After the death of Abbas I, the government was taken over by Safi Mirza (1628-1642), he was the grandson of Abbas I. During his reign, he was known as a weak and cruel sultan of the royal dignitaries. He was also unable to maintain the progress made by Abbas I. In addition, the city of Kandahar was successfully controlled by the Mughal Dynasty led by Sultan Syah Jihan. Similarly, Baghdad was captured by the Ottoman Turks.

After Safi Mirza, the government was held by Abbas II (1642-1667). He was a sultan who liked to drink, was suspicious of the dignitaries and treated him cruelly. The people were not very concerned about Abbas II's government. Abbas II died due to illness. Then led by Sulaiman (1667-1694), he had bad habits like Abbas II who was also a drunkard. Many cases of oppression and extortion occurred. Especially against scholars and Sunni adherents and tends to impose Shia ideology. So that there were no significant developments during his reign.

The situation worsened during the reign of Hussein (1694-1722). He gave freedom to the Shia clerics to impose Shi'ism and his opinion on Sunnis. This sparked outrage from Sunni groups in Afghanistan, so they made a rebellion. The Afghans first rebelled in 1709 led by Mir Vays and succeeded in seizing the Qandahar region. On the other hand, the rebellion took place in Herat carried out by the Ardabil tribe of Afghanistan and succeeded in occupying Marsyad. Mir Vays was replaced by Mir Mahmud and he could unite his forces and Ardabil's forces. So that he was able to reclaim Afghan territories from Safavid rule.

Shah Husein felt pressured because of threats from Mir Mahmud. Finally, Syah Husein acknowledged his authority and appointed Mir Mahmud to become Governor in Qandahar with the title Husein Quli Khan (Husein's slave). This power was utilized by Mir Mahmud to expand the territory. He succeeded in seizing Kirman and Isfahan and again forced Shah Hussein to surrender unconditionally. On October 12, 1722 AD, Shah Husein surrendered and on October 25 Mir Mahmud entered the city of Isfahan triumphantly. Then Mir Mahmud was replaced by Ashraf to rule Isfahan.

The next government was continued by one of the sons of Husein named Tahmasp II (1722-1732), he received full support from the Qazar tribe from Russia. Thus, he proclaimed himself a legitimate ruler with a central government in the city of Astarabad. Tahmasp II collaborated with Nadir Khan of the Afshar tribe to conquer the Afghans who were in Isfahan in 1726 AD Nadir Khan's forces succeeded in capturing Isfahan in 1729 M. Ashraf was killed in the war. The Syafawiyah dynasty returned to power.

However, Tahmasp II was dismissed by Nadir Khan and replaced by Abbas III (1733-1736) who was the son of Nadir Khan. His son was still very small, so on March 8, 1736, Nadir Khan appointed himself as sultan. During the reign of Nadir Khan, the Safavid Dynasty was successfully conquered by the Qajar Dynasty. So ended the Safavid dynasty in Persia.

Safavid Dynasty in Persia (1501-1722 AD)

Ottoman and Safavid Conflict 16th-18th Century
The Ottoman Empire and the Safavid empire were the two major Islamic powers that emerged in the Middle Ages. Unfortunately, the two empires were caught in a long-term conflict. The Ottoman and Safavid conflicts were based on territorial differences and religious traditions. As Sunni Muslims, the Ottoman empire strongly opposed the existence of the Safavids who embraced Shiite doctrine. This conflict is more or less similar to a dispute between various Catholic and Protestant forces in Europe.

Background to the Ottoman and Safavid Conflicts

The Middle Ages of Islam cannot be separated from the emergence of the Ottomans as the new power of the Islamic world. This new empire can quickly expand its power. The strength of the troops and the speed of expansion at the same time become the main barrier for European imperialism.

Meanwhile, the Safavid dynasty, which had previously been a tarekat movement, began to spread its political influence under the leadership of Junayd (1447-1460), the grandfather of Shah Ismail. He formed an army of followers who were predominantly Turkmen who inhabited large areas covering Anatolia and Syria.

Their bigotry was later exploited by Junayd and his successors to obtain political power in Persia.

After gaining power, Junayd's grandson, Shah Ismail adopted the doctrine of Itsna Asyari'ah as the official religion of the Iranian state.

The Safavid Empire later became the kingdom of Shi'ah surrounded by Sunni rulers, such as Uzbeks in Transoxiania, Ottomans in Anatolia, and Mamluks in Syria and Egypt.

Of the three countries, Uzbeks and Ottomans posed a serious threat to the existence of the Safavids.

In the first half of the 16th century, Iranian history was dominated by conflicts between Safavid and Ottoman rulers on the one hand, and competition with Uzbeks on the other.

However, the conflict with the Ottomans was more than territorial competition. The Safavid ability to manipulate Syi'ah's forces in large numbers along the Anatolia border had become a major threat to the Ottomans.

Prolonged Conflict

The threat from the Safavids was increasingly evident, forcing the Ottomans to move. In 1514, the Ottoman Sultan Selim I announced a holy war against the Safavids which he considered a disseminator of bid'ah. The war was known as the Chaldiran War.

Using cannons, the Ottoman army succeeded in defeating Shah Isma'il, the founder of the Safavid dynasty, and occupied much of northern Persia (now Iran). The defeat caused a heavy religious shock towards the Safavids, because according to their beliefs, their leaders could not be defeated.

Putra Selim I, Sulaiman continued the war against the Shah Tahmasp I (r. 1524-76), but Tahmasp retaliated with a "scorched earth" strategy, making it impossible for Ottoman forces to live in colonies. Tahmasp also formed an alliance with Habsburg, the main enemy of the Ottomans.

At the time of Solomon, the Ottomans succeeded in taking over Tabriz in northern Persia. But the Ottomans had reached the limit of expansion, so Solomon was forced to sign a peace treaty with the Safavids in 1555. Thanks to the agreement, the Safavids managed to maintain control of northern Persia and the area along the Caspian Sea but lost Iraqi territory.

After Sulaiman's death, Shah Abbas managed to regain temporary control over Baghdad and Basra in Iraq. Shah Abbas's success was inseparable from the betrayal of Jannisari's special forces. For fifteen years Iraq remained the Safavid kingdom province.

But after Shah Abbas died, the Ottomans recaptured the area. The Zuhab Treaty of 1639 became an agreement affecting the conflict of the two empires. The agreement stipulates that borders are almost identical to those owned by Iraq and Iran today. Until the 18th century, two major powers remained enemies but no further war broke out.

During the period of the conflict, the two empires achieved major military victories and suffered military defeats. Nevertheless they are not able to defeat others convincingly. Their futile war damaged both their economic and military power and were a major factor in their long decline.

Ottoman and Safavid Conflict 16th-18th Century

The History of the Great Wall of China
The Great Wall of China is a series of ancient walls and fortresses located in northern China. This wall has a length of 21,196.18 kilometers.

The Great Wall of China is the most well-known symbol of China and has a long history. At first, the wall was built by Emperor Qin Shi Huang in the third century BC. as a means of preventing attacks from Xiongnu tribes and other nomadic tribes.

For more than 2,000 years the construction of the wall was continued by Chinese rulers. The most famous and preserved part of the Great Wall was built in the 14th to 17th centuries, during the Ming dynasty. Although the Great Wall never effectively prevented invaders from entering China, it functioned as a real symbol of Chinese civilization that had existed long ago.

Qin Shi Huang and the Beginning of the Construction of the Great Wall of China

The construction of the Great Wall of China can be traced to the 3rd century BC, but many fortifications including the inside of the walls have been built hundreds of years before. The fortresses were built when China was still divided into several warring kingdoms.

Around 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor to unify China under the Qin Dynasty, ordered the removal of defense costs between countries and unified a number of walls along the northern border into one defense system. The wall was then extended by more than one 10,000 li (li is about a third of a mile). The aim of this project is to protect China from attacks by nomadic tribes in the north.

The construction of the Great Wall of China is one of the most ambitious development projects ever carried out by any civilization. The famous Chinese General Meng Tian was in charge of the project.

According to some notes, it is also said that the construction of the Great Wall of China used troops of troops, prisoners, and ordinary people as workers.

Most of the Great Wall of China is made of soil and stone. The wall stretches from the Shanhaiguan China Sea port more than 3,000 miles west to Gansu province. In some strategic areas, the walls are overlapped for maximum security.

The wall has a foundation as high as 15 to 50 feet, then it is about 15-30 feet high and topped with a 12-foot or higher fort. The building also features guard towers placed along the wall intervals.

When Emperor Qin Shi Huang ordered the construction of the Great Wall around 221 BC, the workforce that built the wall consisted mostly of soldiers and inmates. It was said that as many as 400,000 people died during the construction of the wall. Many of these workers were buried inside the wall itself.

Great Wall of China World History

With the death of Qin Shi Huang and the fall of the Qin Dynasty, many parts of the Great Wall were damaged. After the fall of the Han Dynasty later, a series of border tribes took control of northern China.

Among the most powerful of these tribes is the Northern Wei Dynasty. When in power this dynasty improved and expanded the existing wall to defend itself from attacks from other tribes.

The Kingdom of Bei Qi (550–577) built or repaired a wall of more than 900 miles. Repairs and extensions were then continued by the short-lived Sui Dynasty (581–618).

With the fall of the Sui and the rise of the Tang Dynasty, the Great Wall lost its function as a fortress, because China had defeated the Tujue tribe in the north and expanded its territory past the original border protected by walls.

During the Song Dynasty in power, the Chinese were forced to retreat under the threat of the Liao and Jin people in the north who took over many areas on both sides of the Great Wall. The strong Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty (1206-1368), founded by Genghis Khan, finally ruled all of China, parts of Asia and parts of Europe.

Although the Great Wall was not so important to the Mongols as military defense, the soldiers were still assigned to the wall to protect traders and caravans traveling along the Silk Road trade route.

Construction of the Ming Dynasty Wall

Apart from its long history, the Great Wall of China as it is today is mostly built during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).

Like the Mongols, the early Ming rulers were less interested in building border fortresses, and the construction of walls was limited to the end of the 15th century.

In 1421, emperor Ming Yongle proclaimed the new capital of China, Beijing, at the site of the former Mongol city, Dadu. Under the cold land of the Ming rulers, Chinese culture flourished, and that period saw a large amount of construction beside the Great Wall, including bridges, temples, and pagodas.

The construction of the Great Wall as it is known today began around 1474. After the initial phase of regional expansion, the Ming rulers largely took a stand and the expansion of the Great Wall became the key to this strategy.

Great Wall of China in the Modern Period

In the mid-17th century, the Manchus from central Manchuria and the south broke through the Great Wall and entered Beijing. In the end, they forced the Ming Dynasty to abdicate, marking the beginning of the Qing Dynasty.

Between the 18th and 20th centuries, the Great Wall emerged as China's most common symbol for the Western world, and a symbol of physical good - a manifestation of Chinese power - and psychological representation of barriers maintained by the Chinese state to expel foreign influence and exercise control over its citizens.

Today, the Great Wall is generally recognized as one of the most impressive architectural achievements in human history. There was an attempt to maintain the structure of the wall, but more concrete steps only materialized in 1980, when China made the wall an attraction and a source of tourism income.

In 1987, UNESCO established the Great Wall as a World Heritage Site, and the popular claim that emerged in the 20th century stated that this wall was the only man-made structure seen from space.

The History of the Great Wall of China

History of the Berlin Wall (1961-1989)
The Berlin Wall which was built in 1961 is a real symbol of the Cold War. This 28-mile wall separates East Berlin controlled by the Soviets and West Berliners supported by the Allies.

Parts of the border are tightly guarded, even around the walls coated with barbed wire and minefields.

With the construction of this wall, Germany is automatically divided into two. East Germans who used to work in West Germany or vice versa could not work in the previous place. Similarly, families living on two different sides cannot meet.

About 191 people died trying to cross into West Berlin and around 5,000 were more successful. The existence of the Berlin Wall itself lasted for thirty years.

Background to the Construction of the Berlin Wall

After World War II ended, Germany fell in Allied and Soviet Influence. The Allies established their influence in the western part of Germany, while the Soviets in the east.

In May 1949, a West German government was formed with the capital in Bonn. Meanwhile, on October 7, 1949, a communist East German government was formed with a capital city in East Berlin.

Entering May 1952, the border between the two regions was closed. Only the border between East and West Berlin is still opened and is the only main gate of traffic from the two regions.

In the years between 1949 and 1961, around 2.5 million East Germans fled East Germany and entered the West, including an increasing number of skilled, professional and intellectual workers. Their presence is feared to destroy the economic viability of the East German country. On the other hand, the East German government was also worried about the entry of capitalism from the West German region.

In response, East Germany built a barrier to close East German access to West Germany. The barrier was first built on 12-13 August 1961, as a result of a decision issued on 12 August by East German Volkskammer.

The first original wall was built of barbed wire and cinder blocks, then replaced by a series of 5 meter high concrete walls which were topped with barbed wire and guarded by watchtowers, gun cannons, and mines.

In the 1980s, the Berlin Wall was electrified and expanded 28 miles (45 km) across Berlin and then extended by another 120 km to separate all East and West Germany.

The fall of the Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall symbolizes Cold War in Western Europe. This separation between the two regions caused a huge gap in prosperity.

In general, the population of West Germany is more prosperous and free than the population of East Germany. As a result, East Germans tried to cross the barrier.

About 5,000 East Germans managed to cross the Berlin Wall (in various ways) and reach West Berlin safely, while another 5,000 were captured by East German authorities and 191 others were killed during the breakthrough attempt.

The wave of democratization that hit eastern Europe, resulted in the fall of communist rule in East Germany in October 1989. On November 9, 1989, when the Cold War began to subside in Eastern Europe, spokesmen for the East Berlin Communist Party announced the opening of borders with West Germany (including West Berlin )

The opening of the barrier was celebrated with joy by the German population. More than 2 million residents from East Berlin visited West Berlin in a week to celebrate the fall of the Berlin Wall.

With the opening of this wall, the inhabitants of East Germany could freely travel to West Germany. Then the wall ceased to function as a political barrier between East and West Germany until it was finally destroyed. West and East Germany itself finally united on October 3, 1990.

History of the Berlin Wall (1961-1989)

The Adventure of Ibn Battuta Exploring the World
The title "the greatest adventurer in the world" is usually pinned by Western historians on Marco Polo, Venetian travelers who visited China and the Archipelago in the 13th century. However, if measured by distance and terrain, Polo still lost compared to Muslim scholars, Ibn Battuta.

Although his adventures were not widely known outside the Islamic world, Battuta spent half of his life crossing vast areas of the Eastern Hemisphere.

In his exploration, Battuta uses a ship to cross the sea and for land travel, he uses a camel or on foot. Throughout his adventure, he traveled 120,000 km (four times the distance of Marcopolo) and has traveled to more than 40 (modern) countries.

Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Battuta was born in Tangier, Morocco on February 25, 1304. He grew up in a family of Islamic judges. When he was 12 years old, he was believed to have succeeded in memorizing the Koran.

In 1325, when he was 21 years old, he left his homeland to go to the Middle East. He intended to perform the Hajj, but he also wanted to study Islamic law throughout his journey.

When starting his journey, Ibn Battuta left alone. There was no other traveler accompanying him at the beginning of his journey, he only relied on the determination to visit famous holy places.

Ibn Battuta began his journey by riding a donkey. On the way, he met a pilgrim caravan group while crossing North Africa. The route is famous for steep and full of robbers.

As he passed the steep route of North Africa, the young traveler had a fever so severe that he was forced to tie himself to the saddle to avoid collapsing. Even so, he still continued his journey. Instead, he married a woman at his stopover. The woman was the first wife of about 10 wives she married throughout her journey. Unfortunately, the marriage did not last long, because both of them decided to divorce on the trip.

After a difficult journey, Ibn Battuta finally arrived in Egypt. In Egypt, Battuta studied Islamic law and traveled to Alexandria and the metropolitan city of Cairo, which he called "incomparable in beauty and splendor."

He then proceeded to Mecca for the Hajj. Upon arrival in Makkah, his original goal had been reached, but after completing his pilgrimage, he decided to continue to travel the world.

Ibn Battuta claimed to be motivated by his dream, where a large bird took him flying eastward and left him there. A holy man who interpreted his dream said that the Battuta would go around the earth and the Moroccan youth intended to fulfill the prophecy.

From Mecca, Battuta began his journey around the plains of Persia and Iraq before finally returning to the city to continue the journey across Yemen to the Horn of Africa (the prominent East African Peninsula to the Arabian Sea). From the Horn of Africa, he then visited the Somali city of Mogadishu before going down to the equator to explore the beaches of Kenya and Tanzania.

Travel to India and Asia

After leaving Africa, Battuta planned a trip to India, where he hoped to get a job as a qadi (Islamic judge).

On his way to India, he followed a winding route to the east, first cutting through Egypt and Syria before sailing to Turkey. As he always does in Muslim countries, he relies on his status as an Islamic scholar to get hospitality from the local population. Therefore, he was often given gifts in the form of good clothes, horses, slaves, and even concubines

From Turkey, Battuta crossed the Black Sea and entered the Golden Horde region known as the Uzbeg. Upon his arrival, he was welcomed at the Uzbek palace and then accompanied one of Khan's wives to Constantinople.

Ibn Battuta lived in the Byzantine city for a month, visited the Hagia Sophia and even received a brief audience with the emperor. Having never gone to a large non-Muslim city, he was astonished by the collection of "countless" Christian churches in its walls.

Ibn Battuta then traveled east across the Eurasian meadow before entering India via Afghanistan and the Hindu Kush mountains.

Arriving in the city of Delhi in 1334, he obtained a job as a judge under Muhammad Tughluq, a strong Islamic sultan in Gujarat. Battuta pursued this job for several years and even married and had children.

But his work must be stopped due to a lack of harmony with the authorities and his fear of the sultan who does not hesitate to get rid of people he does not like. In 1341, the sultan sent Battuta to the Mongol palace in China, the opportunity was used by the Battuta to flee Sultan Tughluq.

Even though the Moroccan thought was still thirsty for adventure, he decided to continue his adventure with a large caravan heading to the Far East.

The journey to the Far East proved to be the most terrible wandering of the Devil. On the way, the group was constantly interrupted by Hindu rebels along their journey to the coast of India.

The peak of Battuta was kidnapped and robbed of all his things except his pants. But disaster doesn't stop there. When he made it to the port of Calicut, on the night of an ocean voyage, his ships exploded in the sea because of the storm and sank, killing many people in his entourage. Fortunately, Ibn Battuta still survived the tragic tragedy.

The series of disasters had made Ibn Battuta devastated. On the other hand, he was reluctant to return to Delhi and face the sultan, so he chose to take a sea trip south to the Indian Ocean Islands in the Maldives.

On the tropical island, Ibn Battuta had settled and married several wives. While in the Maldives he returned to work as an Islamic judge.

But after fighting with the authorities, he continued his trip to China. After making a stopover in Sri Lanka, he boarded a merchant ship through Southeast Asia.

In 1344, he arrived at the bustling Chinese port in Quanzhou. He described the port as one of the largest ports but was filled with garbage.

Despite this, Battuta described the Mongol China as "the safest and best country for travelers" and praised its natural beauty, but he also called its inhabitants infidels.

Depressed by the habits of foreigners who contradict Islamic teachings, Ibn Battuta was finally only fixated on the Muslim community in the country. As a result, the records in this country are also vague, it's just that he calls the city of Hangzhou "the biggest city I've ever seen on earth."

Until now historians were still debating how far he went, but he claimed to have traveled north to Beijing and crossed the famous great canal.

End of the Adventure of Ibn Battuta

China marks the beginning of the end of Ibn Battuta's journey. After reaching the edge of the world, he finally turned and returned to Morocco.

On his way home his ship was attacked by pirates near the island of Sumatra until he finally stopped in the town of Perlak Sumatra on 1345-1346. At that time the city of Perlak was controlled by Malik Zahir, Sultan Samudera Pasai.

He described Sultan Malik as a simple sultan, where he always walked when he performed Friday prayers to the mosque. He also said that the Kingdom of Samudera Pasai was more inclined to be a Sunni kingdom than the Shiite kingdom.

From Sumatra, Ibn Battuta continued his journey back. It passed the Indian, Mediterranean, North African and Saharan routes until finally returning to Tangier, Morocco in 1349.

Upon arriving at home, Battuta's parents had died, so he only stayed for a while before traveling to Spain. He then began a multi-year journey across the Sahara to the Mali Empire to visit Timbuktu.

During his adventures, Battuta never wrote a record of his adventures, but when he returned to Morocco in 1354, the country's sultan ordered him to compile a travel record.

He then spent the following year dictating his story to an author named Ibn Juzayy. The result is an oral history known as Rihla (journey).

Although not very popular in his day, this book now stands as one of the clearest and most extensive travel records of the 14th-century Islamic world.

After the completion of Rihla, Ibn Battuta disappeared from historical records. However, he is believed to have worked as a judge in Morocco and died around 1368. It seems that after spending a lifetime on the road, the big wanderer finally decided to settle in one place.

The adventures of Ibn Battuta: One of The Greatest Travellers of The World